SOCRadar® Cyber Intelligence Inc. | 2024 Elections: Cybersecurity Challenges in Spain and Beyond


Feb 07, 2024
15 Mins Read

2024 Elections: Cybersecurity Challenges in Spain and Beyond

As Spain prepares for its crucial 2024 European Parliament and local/municipal elections, the landscape of cybersecurity threats – from sophisticated phishing and disinformation campaigns to potential foreign interference – poses significant challenges. The lessons learned from the 2023 Spanish national elections, marked by allegations of Russian cyber manipulation, and the proactive cybersecurity measures in Europe, highlight the complexities of safeguarding democratic processes in the digital age. In this context, SOCRadar’s Extended Threat Intelligence emerges as a vital tool, offering early detection, tailored threat analysis, and strategic decision-making support. This comprehensive approach is essential for Spain and other nations to ensure secure, transparent, and fair elections amidst an evolving array of cyber threats.

The Global Electoral Stage in 2024

In 2024, a quarter of the world’s population will participate in national elections, marking a pivotal year in global politics. Countries with significant populations like India, the United States, Indonesia, Pakistan, Russia, and Mexico are all preparing for elections, each facing unique cybersecurity challenges. The outcomes of these elections could be critical for shaping the geopolitical landscape in the ensuing years, making them a focal point for both democratic expression and potential cybersecurity threats. The digital transformation of electoral processes, while enhancing efficiency, also opens up new vulnerabilities to cyber threats.

Global Cybersecurity Concerns in Elections

The Taiwan Example

In January 2024, Taiwan faced a significant cybersecurity challenge just days before its critical presidential election. This election, held on January 13, became the first real security test of 2024 — a year marked as one of the biggest democratic elections in history. Taiwan’s experience underlines the rising cyber threat, particularly from China, posing concerns for other nations as well.

Cyberattacks Targeting Taiwan’s Infrastructure

  • Unprecedented Interference: According to Google Cloud’s cyber threat intelligence firm Mandiant, there was a substantial increase in espionage operations by China against Taiwan’s government, technology, and critical infrastructure. This escalation was particularly notable in the months leading up to the election.
  • Spike in Cyberattacks: Reports indicated a staggering 3,370 percent increase in cyberattacks designed to overwhelm and crash networks in Taiwan. These attacks, while not directly linked to China, originated significantly from the region, representing a new level of cyber aggression.

Election Interference and AI-Powered Content

  • China’s Influence Tactics: The use of artificial intelligence-powered content by China has made it challenging to gauge and counteract cyberattacks and influence campaigns. This technology allows for a rapid spread of disinformation, significantly impacting public opinion and the election process.
  • Manipulation and Embarrassment Campaigns: Tactics employed by China included infiltrating systems to post degrading statements and manipulate public perception. These methods, aimed at causing embarrassment and delegitimizing institutions, represented a shift in the nature of cyber warfare.

Taiwan’s Response and Global Implications

  • Resilience of Taiwan’s Electoral System: Despite the onslaught of cyberattacks, Taiwan’s reliance on paper ballots meant that election equipment was not the primary concern. Instead, the focus was on countering disinformation and protecting the integrity of democratic processes.
  • Global Attention and Concerns: The situation in Taiwan drew international attention, highlighting the need for robust cybersecurity measures. The U.S., among other nations, took note of these developments, emphasizing the need for preparedness against similar threats in their own electoral processes.

Pervasive Threats of Phishing and Disinformation in the 2024 Elections

The 2024 elections globally, and specifically in countries like Spain, are facing heightened risks from sophisticated cybersecurity threats, notably phishing and disinformation. A comprehensive study, as reported by Government Technology on January 9, 2024, sheds light on these growing concerns and offers insights into the evolving landscape of election security.

The Rise of Phishing Attacks

Phishing, a long-standing cybersecurity threat, has gained new dimensions of sophistication, posing unique challenges for election officials. Unlike traditional cybersecurity training, which focuses on avoiding unfamiliar email links or attachments, election officials often need to interact with emails from unknown voters, including opening attachments like absentee ballot applications. This necessity opens them up to increased risks of phishing attacks.

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To mitigate these risks, cybersecurity experts suggest several measures:

  • Isolating Email Systems: By segregating email systems from the rest of the network, successful phishing attacks can be contained, preventing wider network compromise.
  • Alternative Communication Methods: Utilizing online forms with more stringent restrictions, such as disabling attachments, can reduce reliance on potentially vulnerable email communications.
  • Vigilance and Training: Election staff handling emails must be trained to maintain heightened vigilance, recognizing the critical nature of their role in safeguarding the election process.

Disinformation: A Generative AI Challenge

The advent of generative AI has intensified the challenges of disinformation, making false narratives harder to detect and counter. The rapid evolution of deepfakes, for example, poses a significant threat to the integrity of elections. These AI-generated fake videos or audios can be used to create convincing yet false representations of candidates or election officials, potentially swaying public opinion or causing confusion about election details.

Election officials are urged to take proactive steps to combat disinformation:

  • Public Awareness Campaigns: Educating staff, voters, and local media about the potential use and threats of deepfakes in elections.
  • Establishing Trusted Information Sources: Early efforts to establish official websites as reliable sources of information can help counteract the spread of false information on social media.

Addressing Data Breaches and International Interference

Concerns extend beyond phishing and disinformation to include the risk of data breaches and international interference. The study highlighted fears of election interference predominantly from China, followed by the U.S. and Russia, encompassing hacking attempts, ransomware attacks on election infrastructure, and manipulation of election results or voter rolls.

The Concerns and Precautions in Europe

As European nations gear up for significant elections, including the high-stakes European Parliament elections, the focus on cybersecurity has intensified. The situation in Europe provides critical insights into the array of strategies employed to safeguard elections against cyber threats. The recent developments and discussions, as highlighted in various reports including one by International IDEAPOLITICO, and the European Parliament, offer a comprehensive view of the cybersecurity landscape in European elections.

Addressing the Multi-Faceted Cyber Threats

  • Rising Threat of Disinformation: European nations are increasingly concerned about the threat of disinformation campaigns, which can significantly impact election outcomes. The use of AI-powered tools for spreading disinformation has become a central concern, necessitating sophisticated countermeasures.
  • Sophisticated Cyber Attacks: The threat of cyberattacks on election infrastructure, including voting systems and voter databases, remains a prominent concern. The attacks are not only aimed at disrupting the electoral process but also at undermining public trust in the outcomes.

Europe’s Proactive Cybersecurity Measures

  • EU-Wide Cybersecurity Exercises: In preparation for the European Parliament elections, EU member states, in collaboration with the European Commission and the EU Cybersecurity Agency (ENISA), conducted extensive table-top exercises. These exercises, designed to test the EU’s response to potential cybersecurity incidents, underscored the importance of being prepared for a wide range of cyber threats.
  • Strengthening Member States’ Preparedness: The primary responsibility for protecting the integrity of elections lies with the member states. The exercises aimed to enhance their preparedness, especially in election and cybersecurity authorities, against hybrid cyber-enabled threats. This involved testing their ability to quickly develop situational awareness and coordinate communication in the event of a serious cybersecurity incident.

The European Parliament’s Election Security Challenges

  • Vulnerabilities in the Digital Age: The European Parliament acknowledged the real threat of cyber-attacks to the stability of the EU and its member states. A cyber-attack on elections could dramatically undermine the legitimacy of the institutions, making it imperative to build up the necessary means to strengthen electoral cybersecurity.
  • Coordinated Efforts for Secure Elections: The EU has taken a collaborative approach to safeguard elections, implementing various actions, including testing cybersecurity vigilance and readiness. These steps represent significant progress towards more resilient EU elections in a connected society.

Disinformation and Manipulation in the 2023 Spanish National Elections

The 2023 Spanish national elections witnessed a complex web of disinformation and manipulation tactics, highlighting the challenges democracies face in the digital age. Instances of online hate, political amplification of disinformation, targeted disinformation campaigns, and a shift in tactics towards hyper-partisan news were all prevalent during this period. These incidents not only influenced public opinion but also raised significant concerns about election integrity and the effectiveness of cybersecurity efforts.

Online Hate and Disinformation

  • Anti-Migrant Narratives: Viral hoaxes and misinformation campaigns often targeted specific political parties, such as the Sumar party, promoting anti-migrant narratives. These included false claims about controversial electoral promises and misinformation about minors with migrant backgrounds causing panic and pickpocketing at political rallies.
  • Misinformation and Its Spread: Despite being debunked by independent fact-checkers, such misinformation reached millions, showcasing the rapid and widespread of false information online.

Political Amplification of Disinformation

  • Misleading Financial Outlooks: Prominent political figures played a significant role in amplifying disinformation. This included spreading misleading information about public pension systems and making false claims about public pension increases.
  • Political Interests and Narratives: The amplification of these pieces of disinformation was often aligned with the political interests of these figures, further polarizing the public and eroding trust in factual information.

Targeted Disinformation Campaigns

  • Russian-Speaking Population Targeted: A notable disinformation campaign targeted the Russian-speaking population in Spain. This operation used platforms like Telegram to spread its messages and cloned legitimate websites, such as a fake Comunidad de Madrid site, to propagate false narratives about a terrorist attack planned during the elections.
  • Avoiding Prevention: The campaign utilized bulletproof hosting in Russia, making it more challenging to take down the false information.

Influence Operations and Hyper-Partisan News

  • Shift in Tactics: There was a notable shift from distributing outright fake news to spreading hyper-partisan news. This strategy involved bias in the selection of news items and in commentary about events, creating ethical dilemmas about the balance between banning accounts and upholding free speech principles.

Cybersecurity Efforts in Spain

  • Boosting Cybersecurity Preparedness: In response to these challenges, Spain enhanced its cybersecurity measures. This included coordinating defenses against cyber-attacks and combating fake news through institutions like the National Cybersecurity Institute (INCIBE).
  • Focus on Foreign Interference and Cyber-Spying: Allegations of foreign interference, particularly concerning Catalonia’s independence referendum, and domestic cases of cyber-spying were significant areas of focus.

Russian Involvement in the 2023 Spanish Elections: Allegations and Implications

The 2023 Spanish national elections were marked by allegations of Russian interference, highlighting the complexities of cybersecurity in the political sphere. These allegations, as reported by the European Union and other sources, suggest a range of activities that could have impacted Spain’s general elections.

Alleged Russian Interference Attempts

  • Suspected Social Media Influence: It is alleged that the Russian government may have used platforms like Telegram to influence public opinion during the elections. Channels linked to potential Russian disinformation were reportedly promoted, aiming to sway narratives around the July 23 elections.
  • Claims of Leaked Information: There were claims by a purported Russian hacker of having leaks from Spanish authorities. The EU viewed these claims as potential efforts to create misleading documents that could intimidate opponents and negatively impact the perception of Spain and Europe.
  • Distribution of Falsified Electoral Ballots: There were reports of Russian-affiliated channels distributing counterfeit Spanish electoral ballots featuring names of Russian politicians, possibly as part of a broader disinformation strategy.
  • Website Cloning and Misinformation: The cloning of the Community of Madrid’s website, which propagated false warnings about a potential terrorist attack, was attributed to actors suspected to be linked to Russia.

Reported Cyberattacks Coinciding with the Elections

  • Alleged DDoS Attacks: On election day, there were reports of significant Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks targeting numerous Spanish institutions. These attacks were attributed to a group with apparent pro-Russian sentiments.
  • Affected Institutions: Among the alleged targets were key Spanish entities such as the Ministry of the Interior and other governmental and private institutions. While disruptions were reported, most systems were said to remain operational.

Context of the Alleged Attacks

  • Possible Retaliation Motives: The reported cyberattacks were speculated to be in retaliation for Spain’s support of Ukraine, particularly Spain’s military assistance. The group reportedly responsible for these attacks, NoName057, is said to have emerged after the start of the Ukraine conflict and has been active in cyber operations against multiple countries.

Anticipating Cybersecurity Challenges in Spain’s 2024 Elections

As Spain prepares for two significant elections in 2024 – the European Parliament elections and the local/municipal elections – there is heightened awareness and preparation against potential cybersecurity threats. These elections, crucial at both the European and local levels, are anticipated to face a spectrum of cyber challenges.

European Parliament Elections: Preparing for the 10th European Parliament

  • Date and Significance: The European Parliament election in Spain, scheduled for Sunday, 9 June 2024, is a part of the EU-wide election to elect the 10th European Parliament. This election holds considerable importance as it shapes the political landscape of the European Union.
  • Cybersecurity Focus: In light of recent global events, there is an increased focus on cybersecurity to protect the integrity of the electoral process.

Local/Municipal Elections: The Local Governance Aspect

  • Crucial Local Impact: Alongside the European Parliament elections, Spain will conduct local or municipal elections, pivotal for regional and local governance.
  • Targeted Security Measures: These elections require targeted cybersecurity measures due to their impact at the local level and the diverse nature of threats at this scale.

Concerns and Expected Cyber Attacks

  • Increased Cybersecurity Measures: The Spanish government, via the National Cybersecurity Institute (INCIBE), is intensifying its defenses against cyber-attacks and efforts to combat disinformation. This proactive stance addresses the evolving landscape of disinformation and hybrid threats.
  • Foreign Interference and Information Manipulation: MEPs have raised alarms about the potential for increased foreign interference and information manipulation, particularly in the context of the European Parliament elections. The sophistication and frequency of these attempts are expected to grow.
  • Cyber Europe 2024 Exercise: The European Union Agency for Cybersecurity (ENISA) is planning the Cyber Europe 2024 exercise, focusing on scenarios involving external powers, political tensions, and attacks on critical sectors like energy and digital infrastructure across the EU.
  • Concerns Over Russian and Chinese Influence: Specific apprehensions exist regarding Russian and Chinese influence within the EU. Measures like banning TikTok at all levels of national government and EU institutions have been suggested to mitigate these risks.
  • Disinformation-for-Hire Services: The emergence of disinformation-for-hire services, accessible via the dark web to both government and non-government entities, poses a new threat to the integrity of the electoral process.

How SOCRadar Can Help: Safeguarding the 2024 Elections in Spain and Beyond

As Spain gears up for the 2024 European Parliament and local/municipal elections, the role of comprehensive cybersecurity intelligence becomes increasingly crucial. SOCRadar, with its Extended Threat Intelligence capabilities, is uniquely positioned to assist in navigating and mitigating the complex cyber threats these elections may face.

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Proactive Cyber Threat Intelligence

  • Early Detection and Alerts: SOCRadar’s advanced threat intelligence can identify potential cyber threats early. This capability is vital for preempting attacks such as phishing, disinformation campaigns, and DDoS attacks, which are expected to be prevalent in the upcoming elections.
  • Customized Threat Landscape Analysis: SOCRadar offers tailored insights into specific threats relevant to the political and electoral context of Spain, enabling authorities to focus their resources effectively.

Digital Risk Protection and External Attack Surface Management

  • Monitoring Digital Assets: SOCRadar’s Digital Risk Protection services ensure comprehensive monitoring of digital assets across multiple platforms. This includes social mediadeep/dark web, and other digital channels where disinformation campaigns or malicious activities might originate.

Reducing External Vulnerabilities: With its External Attack Surface Management, SOCRadar helps identify and mitigate vulnerabilities in Spain’s digital infrastructure that could be exploited during the elections.

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Strategic Decision-Making Support

  • Actionable Intelligence for Decision Makers: SOCRadar provides strategic insights to decision-makers, including C-level executives and election authorities. This intelligence is crucial for understanding the broader implications of cyber threats and for prioritizing defensive strategies.
  • Enhancing Coordination and Response: SOCRadar’s intelligence facilitates better coordination between various stakeholders involved in election security, including government agencies, cybersecurity teams, and electoral commissions.


The 2024 elections in Spain represent a critical moment for democracy, with cybersecurity playing a pivotal role. In an era where digital threats are increasingly sophisticated and varied, the need for advanced, actionable intelligence is more important than ever. SOCRadar, with its comprehensive suite of cybersecurity solutions, stands ready to empower Spain and other nations in their pursuit of secure and fair elections. By providing early warnings, tailored risk assessments, and strategic insights, SOCRadar ensures that electoral processes remain resilient against the evolving landscape of cyber threats. As we navigate these challenges, the importance of vigilant, intelligent, and coordinated cybersecurity efforts cannot be overstated, making SOCRadar an invaluable ally in safeguarding the democratic processes.